The explanation for today’s study was supplied by the immunobiology of the proteins encoded by these mRNAs and by data from single-center studies suggesting that measurement of these mRNA amounts in urine offers a noninvasive means of diagnosing acute rejection of kidney allografts.6 Methods Trial Design In the prospective observational CTOT-04 study, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health , we enrolled 497 patients selected for kidney transplantation at five clinical sites.Current influenza vaccines use antigens against two proteins on the viral surface, neuraminidase , and hemagglutinin , to which antibodies can bind. Because these cell-surface proteins mutate regularly, new vaccines must be formulated each yr to identify a viral strains. Killer T cells instead recognize viral fragments displayed on the surface of infected cells. The researchers used as their vaccine a fragment from the viral nucleus, which rarely changes. This suggests the feasible development of a general flu vaccine that would not have to become reformulated and administered every year.
AIDS came to the U first.S.